The term "model," as it is used here, is a descriptive/abstract representation used in two senses. First in a "general" sense. models are mental images of general systems concepts and principles. organized into a scheme. Second in a "specific" sense, the "general" concepts and principles will transform to represent a mental image, a description of a perceived real-world social system. In this sense, the models become the products of our own representation of a selected specific system. Such a model also can be mental image, a normative description. a representation of a future system that we create by design.

THE ORGANIZED DESCRIPTION OF AN EXISTING OR A DESIGNED FUTURE SYSTEM IS THE MODEL OF THAT SYSTEM. Concepts and principles that are manifested in social systems can be organized in general models of social systems. These models then can be transformed into the contest of specific social systems. In systems research we develop models that represent one or more classes of systems, The more classes of systems a model represents, the more general the model is. Our present examination focuses on a single class of systems -- social systems or human activity systems -- once we develop a model -- which is a generalization of this class -- we can transform this general model of social systems into a model of a specific systems of our choice..

The SECOND STAGE is the process of INTERNALIZATION/APPLICATION: the integration of those concepts, principles, and models into our own thinking AND their application in real-life contexts -- in systems and situations of interest to us. This process of internalization and application constitutes our journey toward the development of a systems view. The next stage is actual application (e.g. as described in my Systems View of Education book) When we talk about systems applications we are considering the application of systems approaches/models/methodologies/methods/tools in a specific FUNCTIONAL CONTEXT, E.G., a social system INVOLVES the following: (1) select the approach/model/methodology/methods/tools that are appropriate to: (2) the type of systems in consideration: rigidly controlled , deterministic, purposive, heuristic, purpose seeking AND (3) the specific domain of inquiry: description (of the system), analysis, design, development, management.

A description of the two stages follows.